Logical Fallacies and Logical Ways of Thinking Explained by Srila Prabhupada

THE IMPORTANCE OF LOGIC IN PREACHING

Naya-kovidah. Naya-kovidah means nyaya-nipuna. Bhagavad-dutas, those who are gosvamis, they place everything with nyaya, or logic. Their instructions are not blind, dogmatic. Naya-kovidah. Everything, what is said by Krsna or His representative, they are not dogmas. Those who are not representative of Krsna, they will say simply dogmas. Just like in every religion there is a dogma. But in bhagavata religion, bhagavata-dharma, there is no dogma. Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s bhagavata-dharma, the Caitanya-caritamrta’s author, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, says, therefore, that caitanyera dayara katha karaha vicara. Vicara means you just try to understand the gift of Lord Caitanya by logic, vicara. Don’t follow blindly. Following blindly something, that is not good. That will not stay. But one should take everything with logic. But the servants of God, they put everything in logic. Caitanyera dayara katha karaha vicara. If you study the Caitanya’s philosophy with logic and argument… Don’t go by sentiment. The so-called missionary, they’re simply bogus propaganda without any logic. Without any logic. Just like some missionary people are propagating a man to become God. How a man can become God? There must be evidences how God incarnates. Not that somebody by worshiping a demigod becomes God. So many false propaganda is going on. That is not logical at all. So one should be intelligent to understand the philosophy of Krsna or philosophy of Lord Caitanya with logic and argument. Don’t follow blindly. But once you accept, you cannot argue. You have to accept blindly. But before accepting, you take to logic. But when you accept, then don’t go back. Then that is falldown. Naya-kovidah.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2.1-5 — Calcutta, January 6, 1971

LOGICAL FALLACIES AND LOGICAL WAYS OF THINKING EXPLAINED BY SRILA PRABHUPADA

Prabhupada: Yes, in future, yes. (laughter) In Sanskrit logic all these examples are there from nature’s study.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — May 5, 1973, Los Angeles

AJA-GALA-STANA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE NIPPLES ON THE NECK OF A GOAT

Considering material nature to be the cause of creation, maintenance, etc., is called “the logic of nipples on the neck of a goat.” The Caitanya-caritamrta by Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami describes this logic of aja-gala-stana-nyaya as follows (as explained by His Divine Grace Sri Srimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Maharaja): “The material nature, as the material cause, is known as pradhana, and as efficient cause is known as maya. But since it is inert matter, it is not the remote cause of creation.”

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 2.10.45

The material nature has no separate existence without the Lord. Therefore, setting aside the Supreme Lord as the cause of all causes is the logic of aja-gala-stana-nyaya, or trying to milk the nipples on the neck of a goat. The nipples on the neck of a goat may seem like sources of milk, but to try to get milk from such nipples will be foolish.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 2.10.45

Another logic is aja-gala-stana, aja-gala-stana. You have seen on the goats in the neck, just like nipples. If one is expecting milk from that nipple, he is also fool. It is not nipple but it looks like nipple. Aja-gala-stana-nyaya.
Svarupa Damodara: It is like the mirage in the desert.
Prabhupada: Yes, illusion, these are illusions. Aja-gala-stana-nyaya is applied for these rascals, those who are thinking that from matter life is coming. Exactly the same. They are thinking that here are nipples, there will milk come. Let us milk here.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — May 5, 1973, Los Angeles

ANDHA-PANGU-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE BLIND AND THE LAME

We find everywhere the defects of one-sided facilities and a lack of full facilities. A blind man can walk but not see, and a lame man cannot walk but can see. Andha-pangu-nyaya. The blind man may take the lame man over his shoulder, and as he walks the lame man may give him directions. Thus combined they may walk, but individually neither the blind man nor the lame man can walk successfully.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 4.25.13

Simply head, there is no leg: you cannot work. Suppose that you have got good brain, but you have leg, there is no leg. Andha-pangu-nyaya. Then you have to take help from others. So yajnarthe karma. The brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha, everyone should be engaged in Krsna consciousness. Then the society will be perfect. Otherwise, there will be chaos.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 13.3 — Bombay, December 30, 1972

Now we have to utilize it. I always put this logic to my students, andha-pangu-nyaya, that for the benefit of the whole world, American money and Indian culture should combine. (applause) That will bring benefit to the whole world.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.3.18-19 — Bombay, March 23, 1977, At Cross Maidan Pandal

Again I shall repeat the same logic. Andha-pangu-nyaya. Andha means blind and pangu means lame. Both of them are useless. Andha cannot see, he cannot walk, and the lame man cannot walk. Andha can walk but cannot see. And the lame man can see but cannot walk. Now let them both combine together. So the whole world is suffering for want of Krsna consciousness or spiritual life. If American money and Indian culture mix together, the whole world will be benefited. That is my ambition. Take Indian culture and help with American money. The whole world will be happy. Andha-pangu-nyaya. If the andha is taken on the shoulder… If the pangu is taken on the shoulder of the andha, then the lame man can give direction.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => His Divine Grace Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada’s Appearance Day, Lecture — Mayapur, February 8, 1977

Prabhupada: This combination of rich men, poor men, for Krsna. The same — andha-pangu-nyaya. Both of them are useless separately, and when they combine in Krsna consciousness, they are all useful. It is very good example. And there is another example, that a piece of wire is falling, rotting, and a piece of bamboo, rotting, and a piece of squash skin is rotting. And one gentleman collected. He nicely trimmed the piece and dried the squash, the outer portion, and took the bamboo and nicely cut it and joined the string and this became a sitar: “Ting, ting, ting.” So it is the intelligent person who joins all these things and makes it very useful. These are the examples. The bamboo alone is useless, and a small piece of wire, useless, and a thrown out squash skin, useless. But if you can join them together,…you can “Ting, ting.” Similarly andha-pangu-nyaya. Here is a lame man; here is a blind man. All right, combine together and use them. That is wanted. Svakarmana tam abhyarcya samsiddhi labhate. This wire does not change. It is wire. But when it is combined, it is useful. So our propaganda is, “They are separately planning useless. Let them combine together in Krsna consciousness. All this planning shall be successful.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Room Conversation About Mayapur Construction — August 19, 1976, Hyderabad

BAKANDHA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE DUCK (CHASING THE TESTICLES OF THE BULL)

Illustrating the logic called bakandha-nyaya, the duck is such a fool that it runs after the testicles of a bull, thinking them to be a hanging fish that can be taken when it drops. Thus the duck is always in darkness.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 10.3.20

Another logic is bakanda-nyaya. Bakanda. Baka and anda. Baka, the duck. And anda, the testicle, testicle of the bull. The bull is going and the testicle is hanging, and the duck is after it. He is thinking here is a fish. You find him always going…when it will drop. Bakanda. This is nature’s study. [break] The baka, the duck, they are after fish. So the testicle is hanging, he’s thinking it’s a big fish, it will drop now. So it will never drop but he is going after it. Just see. Neither it is fish.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — May 5, 1973, Los Angeles

Prabhupada: So in spite of these big, big names and research and everything, man will die. This is bakando nyaya. He’s thinking it will drop. It will never be possible, but they’re thinking that by these big, big names we shall find out the way that man will not die. This is bakando nyaya. Hope against hope. So by that method they want to live? No.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — July 11, 1976, New York

This is moha. Which he will never be able to do, he is expecting… “We shall do it.” This is also called another logic, nyaya, bakanda-nyaya. You have seen bakanda-nyaya? Baka and anda. One bull is going and his testicle hanging, and another duck, he is thinking, “It is a fish. It will drop, and I shall take it.” This is practical. This is psych… You’ll see a bull is going on and testicle hanging, and another duck is going after him. From this baka the word baka has come. Sometimes we say baka. This bakanda-nyaya.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Room Conversation — January 27, 1977, Puri

NAGNA-MATRIKA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE NAKED MOTHER

The prince came to see the Lord for the first time, but by the Lord’s mercy the boy immediately became a topmost devotee. This was not in theory but in practice. We cannot apply the nagna-matrka-nyaya formula. This states that if one’s mother was naked in her childhood, she should continue to remain naked, even though she has become the mother of so many children. If a person is actually blessed by the mercy of the Lord, he can immediately become a topmost devotee of the Lord. The logic of nagna-matrka states that if a person is not elevated on such and such a date, he cannot become an exalted devotee overnight, as it were. This particular instance offers evidence to contradict that theory. On the previous day, the boy was simply an ordinary prince, and the next day he was counted as one of the topmost devotees of the Lord.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Madhya 12.68

Prabhupada: Simple, yes. Another is nagna-matrka-nyaya. Nagna-matrka-nyaya, just like sometimes if somebody says, “Mother, when you were a child, you were naked. Why do you put cloth now?” Nagna-matrka-nyaya. The mother was naked when she was a child. Therefore she should remain naked still. That is nagna-matrka-nyaya.
Brahmananda: What is that in connection?
Prabhupada: It has connection, if somebody was not very important and now he has become important, so the logic is how this man can be important? This logic. That because the mother was naked in the childhood, therefore she should not put on any garment. This is nagna-matrka-nyaya. We change according to the circumstances. You cannot say that this must remain like this.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — May 5, 1973, Los Angeles

SAKHA-CANDRA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF SEEING THE MOON THROUGH THE BRANCHES OF A TREE

First a child is shown the branches of a tree, and then he is shown the moon through the branches. This is called sakha-candra-nyaya. The idea is that first one must be given a simpler example. Then the more difficult background is explained.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Madhya 21.30

The logic of using analogy is called in the sastra: sakhi candra nyaya. It is easier to focus on the moon through the branches of a tree. The moon is great distance away, and you say that it is just through the branches. So you can focus more easily on the moon because two points joined make a straight line. So focusing on the nearby object helps us to focus on the far-away object. This is the use of analogy.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Lecturing on the Philosophy

ARDHA-KUKKUTI-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF HALF A HEN

Either they do not believe in the sastras or they interpret them in their own way, using ardha-kukkuti-nyaya [Cc. Adi-lila 5.176], “the logic of half a hen.” Once a man kept a hen that delivered a golden egg every day. The foolish man thought, “It is very profitable, but it is expensive to feed this hen. Better that I cut off her head and save the expense of feeding her. Then I will get the egg without any charge.” The impersonalists accept the sastras in this way. They think, “Oh, this is not good; it is inconvenient. We shall cut this portion out.”

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SC 2: In Imitation Of the Original

All rascals, they accept this Bhagavad-gita on the principle of ardha-kukkuti-nyaya. In the nyaya, in the logic. There is a logic, ardha-kukkuti-nyaya. What is that ardha-kukkuti-nyaya? Kukkuti means the hen. So hen gives one egg every day. So the man, proprietor of the hen, he is considering that “This hen is very good, giving every day one egg. But the, its mouth is expensive. It eats. So let me cut the mouth, simply take the egg.” So there are rascals, they study Bhagavad-gita on this principle of ardha-kukkuti-nyaya. “Cut this, take this, cut this, take this.” So if you cut the head, there will be no more egg. The rascal does not know. If you cut the head there will be no more production of egg. So similarly, if you try to study Bhagavad-gita according to your whims, cut this and take this, that is not study of Bhagavad-gita. That is something else. That is something else. That is something else.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 1.28-29 — London, July 22, 1973

Therefore we are presenting Bhagavad-gita as it is. We cannot use the ardha-kukkuti-nyaya [Cc. Adi-lila 5.176] — half. I take half of the hen. I take the rear part, and the front part I reject. This kind of logic, argument, will not be very successful. You have to take as it is, in toto, and you have to understand. That is understanding of Bhagavad-gita. If you take something to your choice, that is useless, useless waste of time. Just like Mahatma Gandhi, he wanted to prove from Bhagavad-gita nonviolence. How it is possible? Bhagavad-gita is spoken in the battlefield. So in this way, if we try to understand Bhagavad-gita, it will be not Bhagavad-gita, it will be something else. We must understand Bhagavad-gita as it is.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 13.13 — Bombay, October 6, 1973

KAKA TALIYA NYAYA / THE CROWS AND TALL-FRUIT LOGIC

Similarly, jnani, they are simply speculating. That logic, kaka-taliya nyaya: “Whether the crow first of all sat down on the palm fruit; then the palm fruit fell down? Or the palm fruit fell down; therefore the crow could not sit on the palm fruit?” Logic. One pandita said, “No, no. First of all, the palm fruit fell down, and the crow wanted to sit down on it, so he could not.” Now another pandita says, “No, no. The palm fruit was there, and because the crow sat down on it, it fell down.” Now this is logic. They are wasting time speculating. Kaka-taliya nyaya. Kupa-manduka-nyaya. There are.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 5.5.30 — Vrndavana, November 17, 1976

Now don’t waste your time with this ‘kaka taliya nyaya’, crows and tall-fruit logic.”

>>> Ref. VedaBase => LIVING ENTITY

KUPA-MANDUKA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE FROG IN THE WELL

But unfortunately we think, “God may be little greater than me.” That is that Dr. Frog philosophy. We have explained several times. Kupa-manduka-nyaya. The frog within the well, he is calculating the dimension of Pacific Ocean. So by this dog, frog philosophical way, we can, we cannot understand what is God. We must receive the knowledge from God Himself, or from a person who knows God.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 2.12 — Hyderabad, November 17, 1972

They are comparing the power of the Supreme Lord with his own power. A frog philosophy. The Dr. Frog. Frog is considering, “Atlantic Ocean may be a little bigger than the well.” Because he is living always. Kupa-manduka-nyaya It is, Sanskrit it is called kupa-manduka-nyaya. Kupa means well, and manduka means the frog. The frog is perpetually within the well, and if somebody informs him that there is another big span of water, Atlantic Ocean, he simply calculates that “It may be a little more than this well, little more than this well.” But he cannot understand how great He is. So God is great. We cannot understand how great He is! That is our folly. We are simply calculating: “He may be one inch greater than me. Or one foot greater than me.” That is mental speculation.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 2.23 — Hyderabad, November 27, 1972

That is the difficulty of Mayavada philosophy. That is the kupa-manduka-nyaya, that “Because I am a person, I am so much limited, how a person can be unlimited?” That is the difficulty for them.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhagavad-gita 7.1-3 — Ahmedabad, December 14, 1972

TANDULA-VRSCIKA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF SCORPION BORN FROM RICE

That cannot be, because we have no experience that from dead stone life is coming.
Sometimes they put argument, tandula-vrscika-nyaya. In Sanskrit it is called. You have no experience here. In India we have got experience. Sometimes from heap of rice, one scorpion is coming out. So foolish men, they will think that the heap of rice, piles of rice, is giving birth to a scorpion. No, that is not the fact. One who knows the scorpion This animal is very clever. They lay down eggs within the heaps of rice, and by the fermentation of rice, it comes out. So actually, rice is not producing the scorpion. It is coming out under some chemical fermentation process. There are manifestation of living entities. There are different types. Udbhijja. Just like trees, they are coming out of the seed. If the seed is sown on the ground, under favorable conditions it comes out. This is also life. And some of the living entities are coming out of eggs.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.1 — New Vrindaban, September 1, 1972

Prabhupada: So wherefrom the chunk came? That is not… That is their brain fag, that they are simply trying to get everything from matter. That is their material brain. But we see here that the origin is not matter. Origin is Visnu, Maha-Visnu. So Maha-Visnu is the supreme soul, maha, Maha-Visnu. So we cannot accept such nonsense theory, that chunk exploded. Where is the evidence that a chunk explodes automatically? How nonsense theory it is. We haven’t got experience. There is explosion of big, big mountains when there is dynamite, and the dynamite is given by some person. So how explosion can take place without the hand of somebody else, some living entity? This simple theory they cannot understand, that where is the evidence that matter acts automatically? Where is the evidence? How you can say that there was a chunk? Suppose there was a chunk. First of all, the question will be: “Who made this chunk?” And then again, next question will be: “How explosion took place unless there was some living being to explode, as we have got experience that sometimes we explode, explode the mountain with dynamite, and that is arranged by a living being?” So they have no common sense even, and they are passing as big, big philosopher, scientist. Then where is the evidence? Can anyone say? Is there any evidence that matter explodes without a living being’s touch? Is there any? No.
Pancadravida: The sun. There are so many explosions are going on in the sun every day.
Prabhupada: That is the same thing that, that vrscika-tandula-nyaya. Explosion is going on, but behind that all these explosions, all these transformations, is the Supreme Lord. That is here.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila 1.9 — Mayapur, April 2, 1975

Prabhupada: This is nonsense. This argument is called in Sanskrit kaka-tal-nyaya. There was a tal tree, and one crow came, and immediately the fruit fell down. And there were two arguers: one said that the crow sat down on the fruit and it was so light it fell down, and the other said no, the crow was trying to sit down on the fruit but in the meantime the fruit fell and he could not sit. It is like that. It may be coincidence, the crow was just trying to sit on the fruit and the fruit fell. But these people’s answer is no, the crow first sat down, then is was fallen. Another says no, the fruit has fallen down; therefore the crow could not sit. So this kind of argument has no value.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz

Prabhupada: No. That is not organic life. The soul appears in different ways. One of the ways is by fermentation, perspiration. So rock and water, when it is decomposed there is fermentation and there is possibility of soul taking advantage and come out with a body. In any case, from matter life never comes. It is compared with… Tandula-vrscika-nyaya. A vrscika, a scorpion, is coming out from rice. Actually, a scorpion down lays eggs within the heaps of rice, and by fermentation of the rice, heating, the egg, I mean to say, produces a small scorpion, and it comes out from the rice. So foolish people, they think that the heaps of rice is the cause of producing a scorpion. So many things come like that, but that does not mean the matter is producing life.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => The Evolutionists: Thomas Huxley, Henri Bergson, and Samuel Alexander

Prabhupada: So their conclusion is like that. Because they see that the insects are coming from the sand. So from matter, this life is coming. This is their logic. It is called in Sanskrit: tandula-vrscika-nyaya. Everything is discussed. Tandula-vrscika-nyaya. You know tandula-vrscika-nyaya?
Svarupa Damodara: No.
Prabhupada: Tandula means rice.
Svarupa Damodara: Rice?
Prabhupada: Rice. And vrscika means scorpion. The scorpions enter within the heaps of rice and lay their eggs. And by heat of the rice, they, another baby vrscika come out. And when they’re coming out of the, that tandula, rice, the rascals are thinking that the rice is begetting the vrscika. They do not know the inner secrecy that another vrscika, scorpion, has laid down the eggs within the rice, and by the fermentation of the heat of the rice, the eggs are fructified and the living entities coming out. Tandula-vrscika-nyaya. (pause)

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — April 20, 1973, Los Angeles

KANA-LOCANA NYAYA PADMA LOCANA (?) / THE LOGIC OF BLIND LOVE

Just like in our country we have seen the Mahatma Gandhi was given the title mahatma. You can give your, any title. Nobody objects. Just like in Bengali we say kana-locana nyaya padma-locana(?). Padma-locana means very beautiful, lotus-eyed. But one mother has got a child who is born blind. Out of her love she has given the name Padma-locana, “lotus-eyed.” You see? So that she can give because she loves the child. Even he is blind, that’s her whim. “My boy, my child is padma-locana.” Similarly, this “mahatma,” this title you can give to any person you like, but it has a meaning, “mahatma.”

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.5.11 — New Vrindaban, June 10, 1969

SVAPNA-CITTA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF REMEMBERING AFTER SLEEP

They are to be awakened to Krsna consciousness. It does not mean they are actually separate from Krsna. But they have to be awakened. They say man is not dead, he is sleeping. But he has to be awakened. As soon as he is awakened, he remembers immediately. This is called svapna-citta-nyaya. I am sleeping, forgetting everything. I am in a different place. But as soon as I am awakened I remember, “Oh, I have to do this, I have to go there.” So this forgetfulness is a temporary illusion, that’s all.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.4 — Japan, April 22, 1972

GADURIKA-PRAVAHA / THE LOGIC OF BLIND FOLLOWING

So if we want to save ourself-We do not know how to save. Gadurika-pravaha. Gadurika-pravaha-nyaya. There is a logic of gadurika-pravaha. One man is doing something, and another man is following. Of course, if you follow a saj-jana, a devotee, that is very nice. But if you follow a rascal, then you also become rascal.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.25.25 — Bombay, November 25, 1974

BHUVAR SATRU NYAYA (?) / THE DUMB HAS NO ENEMY

Prabhupada: That is another art of not being exposed. (laughter) Because as soon as he speaks he becomes rascal. So maunebaba… There is no enemy. There is in Bengali, bhovara satru nai: “If you are dumb, then nobody is your enemy.” So they become bhovara means dumb; I don’t speak. That means I don’t create many enemies, Bhova that’s all.
Tamala Krsna: Nothing positive, though.
Prabhupada: Yes. “You are O.K., I am O.K.” That’s all.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — July 25, 1975, Los Angeles

Prabhupada: That is another cheating. Meditation… Whatever nonsense they are doing, you don’t know, nobody knows. That’s all. Bhava satrugna.(?) “If you become dumb, you have no enemy.” Tavac ca sobhate murkho yavat kincin na bhasate. “A rascal is beautiful so long he does not speak.” So better meditation; don’t speak. Nobody will detect you. This is going on. If you speak, then you’ll be detected what you are. And if you sleep by posing meditation, then nobody will ask “What you are doing, nonsense?” This is meditation. Meditation is another cheating.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Garden Conversation — June 27, 1976, New Vrindaban

Prabhupada: Oh, that is… You keep yourself in darkness. You remain fool. That is scientific. So long you remain a rascal, it is scientific. This is their…
Svarupa Damodara: They say it is unscientific question.
Prabhupada: And because they cannot answer you, boba satru naya. In Bengali, if one is dumb, he has no enemy, but he cannot speak anything. Tavac sobhate murkha yavat kincin na bhasate murkha (?)(Bengali) So murkha, you remain murkha, then that is scientific.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Evening Darsana — July 8, 1976, Washington, D.C.

VARTULA PRAVAHA / THE LOGIC OF BLINDLY FOLLOWING THE FASHION

Prabhupada: Because everyone is prostitute. Vartula pravaha.(?) You know vartula pravaha? This nyaya, logic? Vartula pravaha. One brahmana was taking bath daily in the Ganges. So as a brahmana’s regulative principle, they take kosa-kusi to offer oblation to the forefathers, sraddha. So one day he found there are so many kosa-kusis, so he could not understand which is his own. So next day, just to find out his own, he put one earth ball in his own kosa. Kosa you understand?
Jayapataka: Some plate.
Prabhupada: One plate, yes. It is placed like this. So when he came from, after bathing, he saw that so many kosas are, everything is containing that ball, vartula. Then again he was puzzled that he put a ball in his own kosa so that he can find out, but when he came back from bathing he saw that all the kosas… Then he asked all other brahmanas, “How is that, that there are so many balls in everyone’s kosa? I put it to recognize my own.” So they said, “I thought that it is a fashion now. It is an occasion to put a ball in…” Vartula pravaha. The same difficulty. At Bombay there was some news like this, that prostitutes are not doing well in their profession? Who told me that?

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walks — January 22-23, 1976, Mayapur

FALLACY OF FALSE ANALOGY

Prabhupada: But why two clocks? What is the relationship between the body and the soul? You cannot analyze separately. The body and the soul, they are practically combined. That example is not complete. They are two individual clocks. They are not combined. So therefore there is fallacy of analogy. If there is no common point, you cannot have analogy.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz

MURKASHA LATAU SADHI (?) / ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM (LATIN) / ARGUMENT FROM THE STICK

Prabhupada: Yes. You know? What is that? Argumentum vaculum? With fools and rascals, with animals, there is no logic. Take the stick and beat them. The dog, if he is a dog, what is the argument with him? Take the stick and beat him; then he will go away. That is called argumentum baculum. That is, Sanskrit logic, also said, murkhasya latau sadhi (?) “One who is a fool, his only remedy is beating him with stick.”

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami – vyasa-puja

Prabhupada: Yes. There is medicine; there is beating with shoes. That is going on. Murkhasya laktansadhih,(?) argumentum baculum. You cannot mildly speak to the animals, “My dear cow, my dear dog, please do not bark. Do not go this way.” No, you require lathi, stick, and they will behave. Can you stop dog’s barking by simply request? But you take the stick and beat it, and he will stop. Murkhasya laktausadhih.(?) So there is no king. There is no ksatriya. Therefore these rascals are talking all nonsense.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Evening Darsana — December 3, 1976, Hyderabad

It is commonly said that to give protection to animals, a stick is needed because animals cannot reason and argue. Their reasoning and argument is argumentum ad baculum; unless there is a rod, they do not obey. Force is required for the animalistic class of men, whereas those who are advanced are convinced by reasons, arguments and scriptural authority.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 4.7.14

In political affairs, when a person disobediently agitates against the government, four principles are used to suppress him — legal orders, pacification, the offer of a post, or, finally, weapons. When there are no other arguments, he is punished. In logic, this is called argumentum ad baculum.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 7.5.16

Prabhupada: For them, argumentum ad baculum. Sanskrit is murkhasya laktosadi(?). Just like animal. Animal, if you give argument, no. When you show stick and beat him, then he’ll, he’ll be… Argumentum ad baculum for them.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — August 12, 1976, Tehran

In political affairs, when a person disobediently agitates against the government, four principles are used to suppress him — legal orders, pacification, the offer of a post, or, finally, weapons. When there are no other arguments, he is punished. In logic, this is called argumentum ad baculum.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 7.5.16

Prabhupada: For them, argumentum ad baculum. Sanskrit is murkhasya laktosadi(?). Just like animal. Animal, if you give argument, no. When you show stick and beat him, then he’ll, he’ll be… Argumentum ad baculum for them.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk — August 12, 1976, Tehran

It is commonly said that to give protection to animals, a stick is needed because animals cannot reason and argue. Their reasoning and argument is argumentum ad baculum; unless there is a rod, they do not obey. Force is required for the animalistic class of men, whereas those who are advanced are convinced by reasons, arguments and scriptural authority.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => SB 4.7.14

SOME FALLACIES NOT MENTIONED BY SRILA PRABHUPADA

BADI-SAMISA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF FEEDING THE FISH MEAT

Again, some of Sridhara Svami’s comments are not strictly in line with the bhakti principles, because Sridhara Svami was using the logic called badi-samisa nyaya, which means that if you want to catch fish you have to feed them meat. Your goal is not to feed the fish but to catch them. Similarly, Sridhara Svami didn’t want the impersonalists to reject him out of hand, so he wrote a mixed commentary, though he made clear from the outset that he accepts the personal feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Pramanas: The Valid Means Of Knowledge (Suhotra Swami)

ARUNDHATI-DARSANA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF RECOGNIZING SOMETHING MORE HIDDEN AND SUBTLE BY THE AID OF A LARGE AND EASILY NOTICEABLE OBJECT THAT IS NEAR TO THE SUBTLE OBJECT

“This material world is a reflection and transformation of the spiritual world. Yet, because there are certain characteristics in material nature still similar to those of the spiritual world, spiritual subjects are discussed using appropriate explanatory analogies, which take advantage of these similarities. Another method is called the arundhati-darsana-nyaya, the logical principle of recognizing something more hidden and subtle by the aid of a large and easily noticeable object that is near to the subtle object — the dim Arundhati star is found in the night sky by first finding the bright and obvious star nearby. By comparing the gross characteristics of matter with its opposite nature, spirit, we can surmise the esoteric truths of the spiritual nature as certain characteristics inherent in the material nature are close to the spiritual truths.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Part Three: The Jiva, the Eternal Individual Spirit Soul (Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Jaiva Dharma)

“Although I am unable to clearly describe the Lord by words, samadhi, and the process of sarajut, I have described the topics of the Lord to the best of my ability.”

If one simply takes the insignificant literal meanings of the words, one will not properly realize the described subject. I therefore request the reader to try to realize the truth through samadhi. One should try to understand subtle points from gross statements, as in Arundhati-nyaya [when one points out a faint star with the help of a bright star]. The process of argument is useless, because it cannot lead one to the Absolute Truth. The subtle process of directly perceiving the soul is called samadhi. I have given these descriptions based on this process. The reader should also follow this process to realize the truth.

(Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Sri Krsna-samhita 1/32-33)

>>> Ref. VedaBase => 2. Did the mahajanas compose books using imagination born of mental speculation?

GADDALIKA-SROTA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE FLOCK OF SHEEP

On the spiritual path there is no question of gauna, mundane vote, drawing conclusions based upon the opinions of the masses. Because thousands of people say that Satya Sai is Bhagavan, people accept him as such. This is gaddalika-srota-nyaya, the logic of the flock of sheep. A flock of sheep is following the lead ewe. If that ewe jumps into a ditch the whole flock will follow. This is going on.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => PoI 7: Acaryas are Manifest not Made (Gaura Govinda Swami)

You should be careful before accepting a guru. That’s your responsibility. Don’t be superfluous. You should be very serious and don’t follow gaddalika-srota-nyaya. “Gaddalika” means a flock of sheep. Sheep move in a flock and one is at the head, leading. If that sheep jumps into a ditch the whole flock will jump into the ditch. They never think, “Why should we jump into a ditch?” If the leader jumps, they think, “That is a nice path. We should also go that way.” You should use your intelligence. Don’t follow this sheep logic. That is your responsibility. You should desire to get Krishna. That is the perfection of human life.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => PoI 8: For the Pleasure of Guru and Krishna (Gaura Govinda Swami)

This is your responsibility. You should find such a person and don’t follow this gaddalika-srota-nyaya. “Oh, everyone is accepting so and so as a paramahamsa, maha-bhagavata. Everyone says so.” All right. Don’t think anything. Fall into the ditch.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => PoI 8: For the Pleasure of Guru and Krishna (Gaura Govinda Swami)

MARJARAKISORA-NYAYA AND MARKATA-KISORA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE CAT AND THE LOGIC OF THE MONKEY

But one has to remain ‘passive’. The analogy is that of a mother cat and her kitten, called the marjarakisora-nyaya. The kitten does not do anything to be taken by its mother from place to place. The mother grabs the kitten by its neck and takes it to different places. Likewise, a devotee will also be taken care of by God even if there is no conscious effort on the part of the former.

According to the Northern sect, God will not help a person unless he does his little bit to deserve or earn His grace. The analogy is that of a mother monkey and her young one, called the markata-kisora-nyaya. The mother monkey hops from one tree to another while her baby clings tightly to her. Unless the baby monkey does its own part, the mother will not bother to protect it.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Doctrinal Differences in Srivaisnavism

All mercy, no work. It rests on marjjara-nyaya, or “the logic of the cat.” When a cat deals with her kitten, the kitten is not required to do anything. The mother cat carries the kitten in her teeth, by the neck, she carries her here and there. The kitten is passive.

Then, the other side, called Vadakalai, rests on markata-nyaya, or “the logic of the monkey.” This idea was presented by Vedanta Deshika of the Ramanujite school. The mother monkey also brings its cub here and there, just like the cat. But the distinct feature of the monkey, the cub, is that it catches hold of its mother’s body. It makes an effort. So, this is required. We have free will, so we must not simply leave it all up to God, to show His mercy. It must be there, yes, but we must exert effort as well, to show Him our sincerity. So work is required as much as faith. And we should work for justice, although we do, indeed, require mercy.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => OS 6: Chapter Six

MATSYA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF THE FISH

Anyway, in this Arthashastra, Chanakya enunciates the rather awkward moral position of most people. This particular view of morality is called matsya nyaya, or “the logic of the fish.” Basically, what it amounts to is this: “the big ones eat the little ones.” And this is quite common. Because we’re stronger than the animals we think we have the right to exploit them. In this way, we become the brute beast.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => OS 3: Chapter Three

SUCI-KATAHA-NYAYA / THE LOGIC OF FIRST DOING THE EASY ACTIVITY AND LATER THE HARDER ACTIVITY

In this way, with a desire to gradually describe the birth of the Supreme Lord, or with a desire to expand the glories of the Supreme Lord according to the suci-kataha-nyaya (or according to the principal that one should first perform the easier activity and later perform the harder one) Garga Muni first described the meaning of the name Balarama and then, after concealing the krsir-bhu-vacakah sabdah 1 meaning of the name of Krsna, he awards in this verse the name Krsna because He has a beautiful sweet blackish complexion.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => CB Adi-khanda 14.136

ARGUMENT TO THE PURSE / IF YOU HAVE MONEY YOU ARE RIGHT

Another symptom of Kali-yuga: dharma-nyaya-vyavasthayam karanam balam eva hi: “Religious principles and justice will be determined by a show of strength.” [Srimad-Bhagavatam 12.2.2) If you have some influence, then everything will be decided in your favor. You may be the most irreligious person, but if you can bribe a priest he will certify that you are religious. So character will be decided by money, not by actual qualification.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Fifty centuries ago a great sage looked into the future and told us just what to expect. . .

“‘Any person posing as an acarya, but speaking unauthorized philosophy contrary to the teachings of the sastra and any one who claims to be his disciple and hears such, thereby lending credibility to such nonsense, both of these are bound for Hell.’

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Part Eight: Abhidheya: Vaidhi Sadhana Bhakti, the Practice of Regulative Devotional Service

PETITIO PRINCIPII / CIRCULUS IN PROBANDO / CIRCULAR REASONING / BEGGING THE QUESTION /

Prabhupada: Petitio principii. This logic is called petitio principii. He has to prove something, but he is taking his premises from that something.

>>> Ref. VedaBase => Morning Walk At Cheviot Hills Golf Course — May 13, 1973, Los Angeles